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When Spirit and Opportunity were launched in the summer of 2003, each of them carried one of The Planetary Society's Red Rover goes to Mars DVD's, inscribed with four million names.

The image below was taken by one of Spirit's Panoramic Cameras shortly after the rover's landing on Mars. 7, January 26, 2004: A, E, O, R, and S are the only letters represented by a single digit. 8, January 29, 2004: Numbers representing less common letters begin with a 5 or a 6, but no letter is represented simply by 5 or 6.

It shows The Planetary Society's Red Rover Goes to Mars DVD, installed on board Spirit. Each letter is represented by a number, and each number is represented by vertical lines (l) and dashes (-). 4, January 16, 2004: Each number, representing a letter, is composed on one, two, or three digits. 5, January 19, 2004: More common letters are represented by fewer digits. 6, January 21, 2004: Each digit, from 0 to 7, is represented by a 3 bit binary numbering system: --l is 1, -l- is 2, -ll is 3, etc. 0 alone represents a space, but 0 can also be a digit in two or three digit numbers that represent specific letters. 9, February 2, 2004: Letters represented by three digits always begin with a 5. 10, February 5, 2004: The code for "J" is 572, the code for "K" is 571, the code for "Q" is 574, the code for "V" is 570, the code for "X" is 573, the code for "Z" is 575. A Planetary Society contest led to naming the asteroid visited by the Deep Space 1 spacecraft after the inventor of this code. The code is used as tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired. You can check your answer on our solutions page (warning: this page contains solutions for both DVD codes, so you may want to first try solving both codes found on both DVDs before checking).

It includes tools for encryption and authentication. Lawrie Brown Reference : Date : 30 Apr 99 Description: Loki97 block cipher in Java, candidate for AES. ZIP Author : Graven Cyphers Date : 1992 Description: LUCIFER algorithm.

ZIP Author : Peter Boucher Date : 1994 Description: KS statistical test. ZIP Author : Stephen Park and Keith Miller Date : 08 Jan 92 Description: Linear congruential random number generator. Author : Logi Ragnarsson Reference : Version : 1.07 (the latest stable version) Description: logi.crypto is a non-certified 100% pure Java library for using strong encryption in Java 1.1 programs.

Brian Gladman Date : 14 Jan 99 Description: HPC block cipher, candidate for AES.

Reference : : 2.1 Description: "Official" IDEA implementation in C, by the group which developed the algorithm. ZIP Author : Colin Plumb Date : 23 Feb 93 Description: IDEA algorithm in C, optimized for speed. ZIP Author : Pate Williams Date : 1999 Description: IDEA algorithm in C. ZIP Author : Colin Plumb Date : 1993 Description: IDEA algorithm in 68000 assembly. ZIP Author : Colin Plumb Date : 1993 Description: IDEA algorithm in 8086 assembly. ZIP Author : Unknown posting to sci.crypt Date : Jun 95 Description: Tiny code for IDEA implementation in C. ZIP Author : Doug Gwyn Date : 01 Apr 91 Description: C code for various cryptographically useful statistical analysis functions: Kullback's information measure for a 2-way contingency table, Gamma and repeated functions (Poisson, chi-square, etc.), Pearson's chi- square, etc. ZIP Author : Paul Leyland Description: Utility that prints isomorphs. ZIP Author : Massacusetts Institute of Technology Date : 1993 Version : 5 Description: Kerberos RFC (1510). ZIP Authors : Rayan Zachariassen and Curt Noll Date : 1989 Description: This archive contains KHUFU. There is no connection between this and "-lucre" except for the name. ZIP Authors : Cypherpunks Date : 1996 Version : 0.8.1 Description: "-lucre": The Unofficial Cypherpunks Release of Ecash. ZIP Author : Peter Boucher Date : 1993 Description: Big Block Cipher: uses 256K blocks, three random number generators, two substitution tables, cipher-text feedback, and transpositions. Author : Cryptix Description: Java implementation of the Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Paul Kocher Date : 1997 Description: C implementation of the Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Dutra de Lacerda Date : 07 Jun 97 Version : 1.5b Description: Pascal implementation of Blowfish in CBC mode. ZIP Author : Bruce Schneier Date : 1994 Description: The Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Unknown Description: C implementation of the Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Bruce Bowen Reference : ftp://dsi.unimi.it/pub/security/crypt/bignum Description: Bignum class, written in Borland C . ZIP Author : Bruce Bowen Reference : ftp://dsi.unimi.it/pub/security/crypt/bignum Date : 2 Jan 95 Description: Bignum package. ZIP Author : Colin Plumb Date : 1995 Version : 1.1 Description: Bnlib integer math package. ZIP Author : Adam Back and Tatu Ylonen Date : Jun 97 Description: Quick hacked up RC4 brute force attack program. ZIP Author : Howard Gutowitz Reference : Date : 1992 Description: CA algorithm - cellular automata based cryptosystem. MD2, MD5, SHA-1, HAVAL, Tiger, RIPE-MD160, MD5-MAC, HMAC, XOR-MAC, CBC-MAC, DMAC, DES, IDEA, WAKE, 3-WAY, TEA, SAFER, Blowfish, SHARK, GOST, CAST-128, Square, Diamond2, Sapphire, RC2, RC5, RC6, MARS, Rijndael, Twofish, Serpent SEAL, Luby-Rackoff, MDC, various encryption modes (CFB, CBC, OFB, counter), DH, DH2, MQV, DSA, NR, El Gamal, LUC, LUCDIF, LUCELG, Rabin, RW, RSA, Blum Goldwasser, elliptic curve cryptosystems, BBS, DEFLATE compression, Shamir's secret sharing scheme, Rabin's information dispersal scheme. Brian Gladman Date : 14 Jan 99 Description: Two implementations of CRYPTON, a 128-bit block cipher proposed as an AES standard. TGZ Author : Cryptix Foundation Reference : : 1997 Version : 0.09 Description: The Cryptix library. ZIP Author : Pierre Abbat Date : 1997 Description: Forth implementation of Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Ibrahim Abed Date : 1997 Description: C implementation of the Blowfish algorithm. ZIP Author : Jim Conger Date : May 96 Description: C implementation of the Blowfish algorithm. Naffah Date : Jun 97 Description: Blowfish implemented in Java. ZIP Author : Eric Young Reference : https:// Reference source code for Blowfish BFSH-SCH. Brian Gladman E-mail: [email protected] Date : 14 Jan 99 Description: CAST-256 AES Submission, in C. crypto32Author : Wei Dai Reference : : 20 Mar 00 Version : 3.2 Description: The Crypto library is a free C class library of cryptographic primitives. It includes tools for encryption and authentication. ZIP Author : Matthew Kwan and Lawrence Brown Date : Oct 92 Version : 3.0 Description: LOKI89 and LOKI91. In theory, it can be used for anonymous digital money and other untraceable transactions. Brian Gladman Date : 14 Jan 99 Description: Magenta block cipher, candidate for AES. Author : IBM (represented by Nevenko Zunic) Reference : : 30 Sep 99 Description: Mars block cipher, candidate for AES. Author : Logi Ragnarsson Reference : Version : 1.1.1 (the latest development version) Description: logi.crypto is a non-certified 100% pure Java library for using strong encryption in Java 1.1 programs. Lawrie Brown Reference : Date : 30 Apr 99 Description: Loki97 block cipher in C, candidate for AES. Authors : Ben Laurie and Adam Laurie Date : Aug 2000 Description: lucre is an implementation (in C and Java) of David Wagner's Diffie-Hellman variant on Chaumian blinding. Brian Gladman Reference : Date : 14 Jan 99 Description: Mars block cipher, candidate for AES. All the source code files in a single 20MB zip file 3-WAY.

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