Free sex dating without signup - Mature neopho

GTPases act as molecular switches and are active in their GTP-bound form and inactive when bound to GDP.All GTPases of the Rho family (CDC42 (cell division cycle 42), RAC1 (Ras -related C3 botulinum toxin substrates 1), and Rho A (Ras homologous member)) are active in dendritic spines [].

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This mechanism is implicated in learning and memory formation as it is ultimately altering the number and distribution of receptors and proteins at the post-synaptic membrane, thereby regulating synaptic input.

The Rho-family GTPases play an important role in regulating this spine plasticity by the interaction with cytoskeletal components and several signaling pathways within the spine compartment.

The interaction with SHANK3 might hint towards a participation of RICH2 in synaptic pathways associated with neuropsychiatric diseases since PSD scaffolding proteins of the SHANK family have been closely associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ) [].

To elucidate the role of RICH2 in vivo, we generated mice lacking all isoforms of RICH2.

Since SHANK3 mutations are known to be causative for neuropsychiatric diseases of the Autism Spectrum (ASD), a disintegrated SHANK3/RICH2 complex at synaptic sites might at least in part be responsible for abnormal spine formation and plasticity in ASDs.

Dendritic spines are the sites harboring the post-synaptic compartment of excitatory synapses.

These glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) are characterized by an electron dense structure underneath the postsynaptic membrane – the postsynaptic density (PSD).

This highly dynamic protein network receives and integrates neurotransmitter signals.

Subsequently, we performed a detailed assessment especially analyzing structural and behavioral parameters.

We found a sustained RAC1 activity in RICH2 KO animals that was accompanied with an increased number of PSDs in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum.

d Measuring wet brain weight revealed an increase of approx.

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