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It must be made clear at the outset that typology is not, strictly speaking, a dating method, but a means of placing artefacts into some kind of order.Classification divides things up for the purposes of description, whereas typology seeks to identify and analyse changes that will allow artefacts to be placed into sequences.It is increasingly difficult for prehistorians working in the twenty-first century to conceptualise the problems experienced by their predecessors, and approaches to interpretation before the 1960s are consistently criticised.
The Clovis method of making spear points out of flakes of obsidian rock has been thought to be the "mother technology" for all later technologies that emerged in North America. and Danish archeologists working at the Paisley Caves found evidence of so-called Western Stemmed spearheads at the site.
The spearheads are fluted and have a unique notch at the base where a large flake of stone has been removed. These indicated a different technology from Clovis spears, one that produces spear points that are narrower and differ in the way they are attached to the base of the projectile."Stemming means that there is a long portion of the artifact that is not a part of the blade, and that goes down into the wood of the dart shaft, and then you lash it up and hope that it doesn't split when you cast it into the animal," said Dennis Jenkins of the University of Oregon, the lead author of a paper on the find, which was published Thursday in the journal Science."That technology or shape is found in Siberia and Asia, and it's there much earlier than we have dated it here in the United States."What we see here [in the U.
In 2008, the two managed to date a series of coprolites (fossilized excrement) found at the Paisley Caves to 14,340 years ago, and to show through DNA analysis that they came from people who originated in Asia and were likely predecessors of modern indigenous North Americans.
The new discovery provides further evidence of the presence of people in that pre-Clovis period, and although it does not provide DNA evidence that these people were genetically different from the Clovis, in Jenkins's view, it does support the idea that there were two separate migrations to North America — one that came by way of a Pacific coastal route and another that came from the north via an ice-free corridor in the middle of the continent."What it does is raise the spectre further that glaciers blocked the way through the middle portion of the northern part of the continent — in other words, Canada was under ice," Jenkins said."And even if the ice-free corridor was open, we are not certain that it was a pleasant or habitable environment to be, so there's a lot of questions about the feasibility of bringing somebody through the middle portion of the continent and into the northern plains of the United States through Canada.…"Western Stemmed points are so common in the western United States and much less common in the eastern United States, and Clovis is just exactly the opposite ...
The researchers concluded that the human DNA they found in the Paisley Caves excrement was as old as 14,000 years, and the spear points dated from about 13,230 to 12,960 years ago and did not resemble the spearheads used by the Clovis people, who are believed to have settled in North America between 13,400 and 12,800 years ago.
The find suggests North America was colonized by multiple cultures, some of whom arrived possibly earlier than the Clovis."Our investigations constitute the final blow to the Clovis First theory," said Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen's Centre for Geo Genetics, which did the DNA analysis, in a news release.
We don't know anything about its social organization — or very little."It's not really a culture; it's a technology or a tradition that you look at and then try to extrapolate from there what the culture might have been like."It's likely that hunter-gatherers would have passed down one specific method of spear-making from father to son, Jenkins said, and while the two spearhead types definitely indicate different approaches to crafting tools, it's less clear whether these approaches were applied by distinct groups.
It's entirely possible the different types of spearheads represent an evolution of tools or a contemporaneous use of tools for different purposes, he said — although there were no Clovis points found at the site Jenkins's team examined."It could be the same people using different tools at the same time," he said.
"We look at the projectile points, and we call that a culture, but in reality, it's not.
It doesn't speak language; it doesn't have genetics.
The extent of documentation varied considerably in 'historical' cultures and the information that survives is determined by a variety of factors.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating